The book is intended to serve as a foundation for beginners in the field of biotechnology. The book covers a wide range of topics such as Classical Genetics, Eugenics, Biochemistry, Biochemical Techniques, General Microbiology, Industrial Microbiology and Immunology, etc. It is indeed rare for such a comprehensive range under one book. The book has drawn information from comprehensive literary and scientific references to provide the readers a good blend of the historical concepts and the more recent updates. This will provide a firm foundation for the aspiring students. The book will serve the faculty and student community for many years to come. Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary science dealing with optimization and utilization of biological catalysis and genetic information for the development of useful products or systems. Real progress in biotechnology depends to a great extent on the understanding and the anaylsis of the wealth of the genetic information encoded in the genomes of different organisms including humans, plants, bacteria, viruses, etc. Biotechnology is a rapidly growing and dynamic industry spanning many disciplines in science and engineering. Biotechnology has played a key role in food-production, improving quality of life in many areas including health, food processes, agriculture and the environment for these millennia. It has been acknowledged by many that biotechnology is the engine of growth for life sciences in the 21st century.