Development of Women Entrepreneurs in Selected Businesses

Development of Women Entrepreneurs

in Selected Businesses


A Study on Institutional Supports




Dedicated To



benevolent support and tolerance, this thesis could not

have seen the light of the day.




It is my pleasure to write a foreword for this timely publication entitled “Development of Women Entrepreneurs in Selected Businesses: A Study on Institutional Supports” by Dr. Mohammad Abul Hasan. It is an excellent piece of work exploring new areas and dimensions of women's entrepreneurship in our country. The researcher has endeavored to examine the relationship between women's entrepreneurship and institutional supports for business in the context of our country. In-depth research on this issue is meagre and whatever we find is not meaningfully utilized in the intervention situation. Research activities exploring business environments, especially those concerning women's entrepreneurship, have far-reaching implications for giving a clear-cut direction for our women entrepreneurs. This work can even contribute to their understanding of the need for diverse circumstances and issues of support from institutions, framing the leadership and implementing the policy agenda for their business promotion.


Women's development has always been a challenge in the developing countries. It is more so for Bangladesh, a developing nation with a huge population still living below the poverty line and with pervasive social inequality and gender discrimination. It is very important that women be supported institutionally so that their self-reliance can be achieved and their fundamental rights as well as human rights are ensured.


It is crystal clear that women's entrepreneurship cannot be developed in Bangladesh without institutional supports, despite the existing enormous scope for the development of entrepreneurship for women. By now, it has already been proven that women's entrepreneurship can be developed successfully across the trades and irrespective of the nature of initiatives for business, including traditional household products, food items and services. Financial services like loans from banks or financial institutions or from other GOs or NGOs, and non-financial services like training, networking and motivational activities are key to development of any kind of entrepreneurship, which obviously is the main concern of women. They evidently deserve to get extended and steady support from the concerned institutions to open new avenues for a better quality of life.


I am confident that this book will contribute to changing the socio-economic conditions of women in our country through making a smooth provision of institutional supports to institutionalize and sustain women's entrepreneurship in the business arena of our country. It will also provide guidance to policy makers and implementers to promote women's entrepreneurship.


Tahrunnesa Abdullah

Ramond Magsayse Awardee


A Few Words From The Author

Bangladesh, where social inequality and pervasive gender discrimination prevail and many people live below the poverty line, inculcates the Vision-2021 to achieve the status of a middle income country through steady economic growth for a hunger, unemployment, inequality and discrimination free society. Our country is characterized by high population density and low resource base where the issues of Human Resource Development (HRD) is getting huge momentum to redress the unaddressed areas of women development through different schemes and initiatives for improving their quality of life. Women account for half of the total population and they still remain vulnerable and neglected in the family as well as in the social environment. They are generally deprived of opportunities for development. Mention should be made here that development and growth of children are highly dependent on the quality of life of women which again depends on the level of economic self-reliance of women that can be achieved through entrepreneurial leadership. Once they are empowered they can then lead other marginalised women groups towards financial independence.


In this research, initiative has been taken to identify the barriers of institutional supports for the women and also to unite their strengths which can be beneficial in policy making. This research aims to create awareness amongst men and the inner circle of women to create the essential support that women need to run business initiatives.


This manuscript has been prepared on the basis of my dissertation on the “Development of Women Entrepreneurs in Selected Businesses: A Study on Institutional  Supports” has been submitted for the partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree. A number of persons and institutions have contributed to this empirical study. It is an honour and with great pleasure I would like to recognise their contribution. A special thanks is for my learned supervisor Professor Dr. M. Mohsin Ali for his invaluable advice, co-operation and continuous guidance, critical evaluation and constructive suggestions from the incubation of the research proposal up to the final production of the dissertation. I would also like to thank Mrs. Tahrunnesa Abdullah for graciously penning down the foreword of this book. Finally, I express my profound gratitude to the Almighty Allah for His grace and blessings without which no one can smile let alone achieve a PhD degree.


It will be highly appreciated if readers send their comments, suggestions and guidance for further enrichment and development of this work.


Dr. Mohammad Abul Hasan

Date : 01.02.2012                           




Women’s development has always been a challenge in the developing countries. Bangladesh, where most people live below the poverty line, social inequality and gender discrimination is pervasive, it is important that women be supported institutionally. In both financial and legal areas, there is ample scope to work in supporting women to achieve self-reliance to defend their basic rights and the development of human rights.


In this regard, the researcher finds it significant to analyze the role of institutional supports(ISs) in the development of women entrepreneurs (WEs). It is because, entrepreneurship can help a woman twice first, it can make her self-reliant, and secondly, it can help her to empower other women who do not have an opportunity to grow up. In most rural and even urban areas of Bangladesh, the lack of opportunity stands as the most serious hurdle against women to establish themselves as developed persons, let alone become successful entrepreneurs.


It is evident that without ISs women entrepreneurship (WE) cannot be developed in a country like Bangladesh.  This study identifies the types of ISs available for the development of WEs and needs of various supports for the development and sustainability of WEs.


This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods adopting personal interview survey strategy. Government and non-government organizations working for the development of WEs including international agencies and selected women micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (WMSMEs) were studied. The identification of nature of WEs and supply and demand of ISs for their development were also searched. The study area covers five among the six divisions of the country. The enterprises studied are located at 19 places and they were from five metropolitan areas, nine district headquarters and four upa-zillas. The study area had been selected from urban areas only as the rural women do not have any market access, which is one of the issues of this study. The primary data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS), statistical software.


The study finds that enterprises run by women were associated with household products, food items and services. Among them manufacturing enterprises were mostly engaged in making household products with mud, bamboo, cane, wood and food items with milk. The enterprises run by women are proprietorship form of business with relatively small amount of capital.


From the study, it is viewed that WEs got some support from enterprise development related institutions, which are classified into financial and non-financial services. Financial ISs includes banks loan and credit from financial institutions or other GOs or NGOs, which were used to meet the requirement for working and fixed capital. On the other hand, training, networking, motivational activities are the non-financial ISs. The support supplied by the institutions for the development of WEs is evaluated in the study and a gap between the supply and demand is assessed. Most organizations supporting WEs are engaged in short-term financial targets, which largely have halted the expected growth of women entrepreneurship in Bangladesh. It is also found that entrepreneurs who have been supported by both financial and non-financial services with a better position in the market compared to WEs who lacked those supports.


The study actually identifies the factors affecting WED and constraints relating to market access to WEs such as social, cultural, technological and financial barriers to suggest ways to overcome the same. Finally, after identification of existing gaps and contradictions between the performance in reality and the expected standard and scrutinizing the support mechanisms an assessment for the policy actions for WED is made aiming to ensure adequate and appropriate support for WEs.  


Acronyms And Abbreviations

ADAB       :    Association of Development Agencies in Bangladesh

ADB          :    Asian Development Bank

ASA           :   Association for Social Advancement

BANBEIS  :    Bangladesh Bureau of Educational Information and Statistics

BASIC       :    Bank of Small Industries and Commerce

BBS           :    Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics

BDT           :    Bangladeshi Taka (currency)

BEA           :    Bangladesh Employers’ Association

BEPZA      :    Bangladesh Export Processing Zones Authority

BER           :    Bangladesh Economic Review

BHB          :    Bangladesh Handloom Board

BIDS          :    Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies

BITAC       :    Bangladesh Industrial Technical Assistance Centre

BKB          :    Bangladesh KrishiBank

BMDC       :    Bangladesh Management Development Centre

BOI            :    Board of Investment

BRAC        :    Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee

BRDB        :    Bangladesh Rural Development Board

BSB           :    Bangladesh Shilpa Bank

BSCIC       :    Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industries Corporation

BSRS         :    Bangladesh Shilpa Rin Sangstha

CEDAW    :    The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women

CIDA         :    Canadian International Development Agency

CIRDAP    :    Centre for Integrated Rural Development for Asia and the Pacific

CMI           :    Census of Manufacturing Industries

CPS            :    Contraceptive Prevalence Survey

CRORE      :    Ten million (10,000,000)

DFI            :    Development Financial Institution

DHS           :    Demographic and Health Survey

DWA         :    Directorate of Women Affairs

DYD          :    Department of Youth Developments.

EPZ            :    Export Processing Zone

ERD           :    Economic Relations Division, Ministry of Finance, GOB

EU             :    European Union

GDP           :    Gross Domestic Product

GOB          :    Government of Bangladesh

GOs           :    Governmental Organizations

GTZ           :    Government of Germany Technical Assistance

HBFC        :    House Building Finance Corporation

HDS           :    Household Demographic Survey

HES           :    Household Expenditure Survey

IDAs          :    International Donor Agencies 

IFAD         :    International Fund for Agricultural Development

IFC            :    International Finance Corporation

IGA           :    Income Generating Activities

ILO            :    International Labour Organization

ILO-SAAT :    South Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team Organization

INGOs       :    International Non-Governmental Organization

ISs             :    Institutional Supports

JMS           :    Jatiyo Mahila Shangstha

Lakh          :    One hundred thousand (100,000)

LDC           :    Least Developed Country

LFS            :    Labour Force Survey

MEs           :    Micro Enterprises 

MIDAS      :    Micro Industries Development Assistance and Services

MOWCA   :    Ministry of Women’s and Children’s Affairs

MSMEs      :    Micro, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

NASCIB    :    National Association for Small and Cottage Industries in Bangladesh

NGOs        :    Non-Governmental Organizations

NIPORT     :    National Institute of Population Research and Training

NORAD     :    Norwegian Agency for Development

OECD        :    Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

PKSF         :    Palli Karma Shahayok Foundation

SAARC      :    South Asian Association for Regional Co-operation

SEDA        :    The South Asia Entrepreneurship Development

SIDA         :    Swedish International Development Agency

SME           :    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

TBA           :    Traditional Birth Attendant

Tk              :    Taka—the Bangladesh unit of currency (US$1=approx. Tk.70 on June 2007)

TOR           :    Terms of Reference

UN             :    United Nations

UNDP        :    United Nations Development Programme

UNRISD    :    United Nations Research Institute for Social Development

USAID       :    United States Agency for International Development

VGDP        :    Vulnerable Group Development Programme

WB            :    World Bank

WE            :    Women Entrepreneurship

WED          :    Women Entrepreneurship Development

WEDP        :    Women Entrepreneurship Development Programme

WEs           :    Women Entrepreneurs

WFP           :    World Food Programme

WID           :    Women in Development

WMSMEs  :    Women Micro, Small and Medium sized Enterprises 



List of Tables...................................................................... 23-25

List of Figures........................................................................... 26

List of Boxes............................................................................ 26


Chapter 1    Introduction. 27-38


1.1.. Statement of the Problem.. 27

1.2.. The Rationale of the Study. 29

1.2.1Entrepreneurship and Economic Development29

1.2.2Women Entrepreneurship and Women Development30

1.2.3Emergence of WED and ISs in Bangladesh. 32

1.3.. Objectives of the Study. 34

1.4.. Scope of the Study. 35

1.5.. Limitations of the Study. 35

1.6.. Organizational Plan of the Thesis. 37


Chapter 2    The Context and Setting-up of the Study. 39-57

2.1.. Current Situation for WED in Bangladesh. 39

2.2.. Women's Access to Work and Productive Resources. 42

2.2.1     Women Population by Economic Category. 43

2.2.2     Women in Agriculture and Non-agriculture Sector44

2.2.3     Women in Non-farm Activities. 45

2.2.4     Employment in Organized Sector46

2.2.5     Women in Industry. 47

2.2.6     Self-employment48

2.3.. Supporting Institutions and their Programmes on WED.. 49

2.3.1    Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC)50

2.3.2    The Micro Industries Development Assistance Services (MIDAS)51

2.3.3    The Association for Social Advancement (ASA)52

2.3.4    Bangladesh Small and Cottage Industries Corporation (BSCIC)52

2.3.5    Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB)53

2.3.6    Department of Youth Development (DYD)54

2.3.7    Bangladesh Women Chamber of Commerce and Industry (BWCCI)54

2.3.8    The South Asia Enterprise Development Facility (SEDF)54

2.3.9    Women Entrepreneurs Association of Bangladesh (WEAB)54

2.3.10  Chittagong Women Entrepreneurs (CWE)55

2.3.11  Jatiyo Mohila Shangstha (JMS)55

2.3.12  ANGANA.. 55

2.3.13  Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG)55

2.3.14  Concluding Remarks. 56


Chapter 3    Concept and Literature Review.. 58-86

3.1.. Women Entrepreneurship (WE)58

3.2.. Women Entrepreneurship Development (WED)59

3.3.. Entrepreneurial Training and Shortcomings. 62

3.4.. Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs)64

3.5.. Governmental Organizations (GOs)65

3.6.. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)66

3.7.. International  Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs)66

3.8.. International Donor Agencies (IDAs)67

3.9.. Institutional Supports (ISs)67

3.9.1  Classification of ISs. 67

3.9.2  Nature of Demand for ISs. 68 Demand for Financial Institutional Supports (FISs)70 for Non-Financial ISs. 71

3.9.3     Assessment of Effectiveness of ISs. 71

3.9.4     Impacts of ISs. 74

3.10Model of Entrepreneurship. 75

3.10.1   Behavioural Model of Entrepreneurship. 75

3.10.2   ‘Push’ and ‘Pull’ Theoretical Model of Entrepreneurship  76

3.10.3   Model of Strategic Management76

3.10.4   Model of Variables Affecting the Performance of WEs  76

3.10.5   Entrepreneurial Economic Success Index (EESI)78

3.10.6   Gibb’s Small Enterprise Development Model78

3.10.7   Model developed for the analysis Effectiveness of NGO supported Micro-enterprises  78

3.11A Model Developed for Assessment of ISs for WED.. 79

3.11.1   Capacity Build-up Cycle. 81

3.11.2   Business Development Cycle. 81

3.11.3   Market Existence Cycle. 82

3.11.4   Attainment of Sustainability Cycle. 82

3.11.5   Inter-Relationships among Four Cycles. 83

3.11.6   Proposed Model for Assessment of Effectiveness. 84


Chapter 4    Data and Methodology. 87-100

4.1.. Research Method. 87

4.2.. Research Strategy for Data Collection. 88

4.3.. Data Collection. 89

4.3.1     Sources of Data. 89     Primary Sources. 89     Secondary Sources. 89

4.4.. Methods of Data Collection. 90

4.4.1     Primary Data Collection Instruments. 90

4.4.2     Data Collection Procedure. 90     Face-to-Face Interview.. 91     Friendly Conversation. 91     Telephonic Interview.. 91     Data Analysis Procedure. 91

4.5.. Sample Design. 92

4.5.1     The Respondents. 92

4.6.. Coverage of the Study Area. 93

4.7.. Method of Selection of Businesses. 93

4.8.. Method of Selection of Institutions. 94

4.9.. Method of Selection of WEs and WMSMEs. 95

4.9.1     Concentration of Sample (WMSMEs) Enterprises. 97


Chapter 5    Assessment of Institutional Supports on Building Capacity of Women  102-132

5.1.. Characteristics of WEs. 102

5.1.1     Age of WEs. 102

5.1.2     Level of General Education. 103

5.1.3     Level of Technical Education. 103

5.1.4     Marital Status. 104

5.1.5     Religion. 104

5.1.6     Daily Working Hours of WEs. 105

5.1.7     Motivation behind Starting Business. 106

5.1.8     Concluding Remark. 106

5.2.. Characteristics of Enterprises Run by Women and Supported by Institutions  106

5.2.1     Location of WMSMEs. 106

5.2.2     Names of Businesses and Types of Operations. 107

5.2.3     Names of Businesses. 109

5.2.4     Nature of Businesses and Products. 111

5.2.5     Age of the Enterprises. 124

5.2.6     Networking. 125

5.2.7     Types of Employment (Skill Based)126

5.2.8     Ownership Pattern and Management127

5.2.9     Legality of Businesses. 128

5.2.10   Size of Capital129

5.2.11   Sources of Capital131

5.3.. Concluding Remarks. 132


Chapter 6    Assessment of Institutional Supports in Developing Business  133-152

6.1.. Characteristics of ISs. 133

6.2.. Types of ISs. 134

6.3.. Nature of Financial Supports. 135

6.4.. Use of Financial Support on the basis of Source. 135

6.5.. Loan Size and Disbursement136

6.6.. Loan Refund. 136

6.7.. Sources of Loan Repayment137

6.8.. Use of Financial Support on the basis of Duration. 137

6.9.. Types of Investment using Financial Support138

6.10Patterns of Loan Taking for Capital Investment139

6.11Credit Supplying Institutions. 141

6.12Financial ISs. 142

6.13Non-Financial ISs. 142

6.14Pattern of Non-Financial Supports. 143

6.15Sources of Non-Financial Supports. 144

6.16Training Supports. 145

6.17Time of Receiving Training Supports. 146

6.18Place of Receiving Training. 146

6.19Barriers to Receive ISs. 147

6.20Demand for ISs. 148

6.21Demand for Financial Supports. 148

6.22Demand for Non-Financial Supports. 148

6.23Gap between Demand and Supply of ISs. 149

6.24Gap in Financial ISs. 149

6.25Gap in Non-Financial ISs. 149

6.26Concluding Remarks. 150


Chapter 7    Role of Institutional Supports in Attaining Sustainable Entrepreneurship  153-191

7.1.. Socio-economic Condition. 153

7.1.1     Perceived development153

7.1.2     Changes in the Socio-economic Condition. 154

7.1.3     Movable/Immovable Properties. 154

7.1.4     Food Consumption Level154

7.1.5     Education Expenses. 155

7.1.6     Disposable Income. 156

7.1.7     Ownership of House and Property. 156

7.1.8     When House Made (before/after starting)156

7.1.9     Concluding Remarks. 157

7.2.. Marketing Base. 158

7.2.1     Marketing Assistance. 158

7.2.2     Nature of Interventions Received/Perceived by WEs. 158

7.2.3     Encouragements through Awards. 161

7.2.4     Access to Market162

7.2.5     Nature of Intervention of GOs for WED.. 162

7.2.6     Interventions of NGOs for Providing Market Access. 164

7.2.7     Interventions of INGOs, Banks, and Development Partners for Providing Market Access  166

7.2.8     Adjustment of Training with Market168

7.2.9     Redesigning Market Oriented Programmes. 170

7.3.. Performance of WMSMEs in Marketing Activities. 171

7.3.1     Target Market171

7.3.2     Assessment of Market Demand by WEs. 171

7.3.3     Marketing Mix. 173

7.3.4     Product Mix. 173

7.3.5     Pricing Objectives. 173

7.3.6     Pricing Methods. 174

7.3.7     Marketing Channel174

7.3.8     Market Coverage. 175

7.3.9     Competition. 176

7.3.10   Promotional Techniques. 176

7.3.11   Sources of Appraisement177

7.3.12   Concluding Remarks. 178

7.4.. Effectiveness of ISs for the Development WEs. 179

7.4.1     Idea Generation and Diversification. 179

7.4.2     Motivation and Commitment180

7.4.3     Start-up Capital of WMSMEs. 180

7.4.4     Existing Performance. 180

7.4.5     Performance in the Market181     Pricing Strategy. 182

7.4.6     Performance in Production. 184

7.4.7     Performance in Overall Financial Terms. 185     Capital Employed. 186     Return on Capital187     Savings. 188

7.5.. Growth Potentiality. 188

7.5.1     Existing Resources. 188

7.5.2     Experience Base. 189

7.5.3     Leadership Base. 189

7.5.4     Idea Base. 189

7.5.5     Concluding Remarks. 190

7.6.. The Future Projection. 190

7.7.. Concluding Remarks. 191


Chapter 8    Summary and Recommendations. 192

8.1.. Summary of Findings. 192

8.2.. Recommendations. 195

8.2.1     Recommendations for Policy-Makers / GOs. 195

8.2.2     Recommendations for NGOs. 196

8.2.3     Recommendations for WEs / Private Sector199

8.3.. Scope for Future Research. 201


Bibliography...................................................................... 203

Appendix.................................................................... 211-230

Album......................................................................... 231-240





Table ‎2.1      Distribution of Women Population by Economic Category 1995-2003  43

Table ‎2.2      Economically Active Women Workforce (Persons aged 15 years and over) 44

Table ‎2.3      Absolute Increases/ Decreases of Women Participation in Agriculture/ Non-agriculture Sector 45

Table ‎2.4      Women Employment in Non-farm Productions. 46

Table ‎2.5      Percentage of Women Employment in Organized Sector 47

Table ‎2.6      Civilian Labour Force in 15 years and Over by Sex and Urban / Rural Residence  48

Table ‎2.7      Percentages of Active Self-employed Women. 49


Table ‎4.1      Distribution of Samples based on Administrative Units  97

Table ‎4.2      Distribution of WEs based on Administrative Areas. 98

Table ‎4.3      Institution-wise Distribution of WEs. 99

Table ‎4.4      Division-wise Distribution of WEs based on Businesses  100


Table ‎5.1      Age of Entrepreneurs. 102

Table ‎5.2      Level of General Education. 103

Table ‎5.3      Level of Technical Education. 103

Table ‎5.4      Marital Status. 104

Table ‎5.5      Religion. 104

Table ‎5.6      Daily Working Hours of WEs. 105

Table ‎5.7      The Views on Motivational Factors. 106

Table ‎5.8      Types of Operations. 107

Table ‎5.9      WMSMEs Run by Single Operation. 108

Table ‎5.10    WMSMEs Run by Combined Operation. 108

Table ‎5.11    Names of Businesses. 109

Table ‎5.12    Names of Businesses Category. 110

Table ‎5.13    Ages of the Enterprises. 125

Table ‎5.14    Networking. 126

Table ‎5.15    Types of Employment (Skill based) 126

Table ‎5.16    Ownership Pattern and Management 127

Table ‎5.17    Legality of Businesses. 127

Table ‎5.18  Size of Capital 130

Table ‎5.19  Sources of Capital 131


Table ‎6.1      Institution-wise Distribution of WEs. 133

Table ‎6.2      Types of supports. 134

Table ‎6.3      Sources of Financial Support 135

Table ‎6.4      Loan Disbursement 136

Table ‎6.5      Loan Refund. 136

Table ‎6.6      Source of Loan Repayment 137

Table ‎6.7      Use of Financial Support based on Duration. 137

Table ‎6.8      Types of Investment using Financial Supports. 138

Table ‎6.9      Reasons of Loan Taking for Capital Investment 139

Table ‎6.10    Credit Supplying Institutions. 141

Table ‎6.11    Pattern of Non-financial Supports. 143

Table ‎6.12    Sources of Non-financial Supports. 143

Table ‎6.13    Time of Receiving Training Supports. 146

Table ‎6.14    Place of Receiving Training. 147

Table ‎6.15    Barriers to Receive Non-financial Support 147


Table ‎7.1      Perceived development 153

Table ‎7.2      Changes in the Socio-economic Condition. 154

Table ‎7.3      Movable/Immovable Properties. 154

Table ‎7.4      Increase in Consumption Level 154

Table ‎7.5      Increase the Quality of Food Intake. 155

Table ‎7.6      Increase the Volume of Food Intake. 155

Table ‎7.7      Educational Expenses. 156

Table ‎7.8      Disposable Income. 156

Table ‎7.9      Have Own House. 156

Table ‎7.10    When House Made (before/after starting) 157

Table ‎7.11    Marketing Assistance. 158

Table ‎7.12    Nature of Interventions Received/Perceived by WEs. 159

Table ‎7.13    Encouragements through Awards. 161

Table ‎7.14    Nature of Intervention of GOs for WED.. 163

Table ‎7.15    Interventions of NGOs for Providing Market Access. 165

Table ‎7.16    Interventions of INGOs, Banks, and Development Partners for Providing Market Access  167

Table ‎7.17    Supports to BMOs by SEDF. 167

Table ‎7.18    Performance Indicators of Institutions for Partnr Organisation(PO) Categorization  171

Table ‎7.19    Business-wise Method Used for Assessment of Market Demand by WEs  172

Table ‎7.20    Marketing Channel 174

Table ‎7.21    Market Coverage. 175

Table ‎7.22    Competition. 176

Table ‎7.23    Promotional Techniques used by WEs. 176

Table ‎7.24    Appraised for product 177

Table ‎7.25    Sources of Appraisement 177

Table ‎7.26    Sources of Idea Diversification. 179

Table ‎7.27    Average Age of Existence in Market 181

Table ‎7.28    Pricing Strategy. 183

Table ‎7.29    Wastage/Damage during Production/Service. 185

Table ‎7.30    Performance of WMSMEs with respect to Capital Employed and Return on Capital 186

Table ‎7.31    Savings. 188

Table ‎7.32    Growth Plan and Budget for Future Operations. 190




Figure ‎3.1     Model of variables affecting the performance of women  76

Figure ‎3.2     Model on Emergence of Entrepreneurship - Pareek and Nadkarni (1971) 77

Figure ‎3.3     Concepts of System and Sub-system used in this Study  80

Figure ‎3.4     Women Entrepreneurship Development Cycle. 83

Figure ‎3.5     Proposed Model for Assessment of Effectiveness of ISs in WED   86


Figure ‎4.1     Administrative Division-wise Distribution of Samples  97

Figure ‎4.2     Sampling Plan. 101


Figure ‎5.1     Having legality of business. 129

Figure ‎5.2     Size of Capital130

Figure ‎5.3     Sources of Capital131


Figure ‎6.1     Sources of Financial Support135

Figure ‎6.2     Use of Financial Support based on Duration. 138

Figure ‎6.3     Reasons of Loan Taking for Capital Investment140

Figure ‎6.4     Having Training from any Support Institution. 145

Figure ‎6.5     Demand, Supply and Feedback of Supports in Market Environment150


Figure ‎7.1     Market Coverage. 175



Box ‎7.1        Train One on Place of Other169

Box ‎7.2        Exploiting Opportunities for Market Existence and Sustainability Assurance through ISs  169-170


  • বইয়ের লেখক: Dr. Mohammad Abul Hasan
  • আই.এস.বি.এন: 9847021400836
  • স্টকের অবস্থা: স্টক আছে
  • ছাড়কৃত মূল্য: 225.00 Taka
  • বইয়ের মূল্য: 300.00 Taka
  • সংস্করণ: 1st Edition
  • পৃষ্ঠা: 240
  • প্রকাশক: Hakkani Publishers
  • মুদ্রণ / ছাপা: Techno BD International
  • বাঁধাই: Hardback
  • বছর / সন: February, 2012

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